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Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) - Water Treatment of Frac Water - Salt Water Disposal (SWD)

Ramteq produces a broad variety of water treatment equipment, our mobile self contained chlorine dioxide (ClO2) system for the treatment of frac water, has been successfully deployed in many of the US oil plays. We have also designed and produce a stationary automated ClO2 system for the precipitation of iron and improved oil split on produced water prior to injection down a salt water disposal well (SWD). Call us today for additional information about chlorine dioxide and the solutions Ramteq may have for your application.

 

Why Chlorine Dioxide?

Common features of chlorine dioxide

Common applications for chlorine dioxide

Generating Chlorine dioxide

 

 

 

 

Why Chlorine Dioxide?

Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) is an oxidizing agent that has long been recognized as a highly effective disinfectant and can be used anywhere microbial contamination can occur. Commonly, chlorine dioxide is utilized in food harvest & processing, drinking water and wastewater applications as well as many others.

 

Due to its physical and chemical properties, Chlorine Dioxide has the unique capability of performing as a superb disinfectant for control of micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses, pathogens and spore forming organisms while remaining relatively un-reactive with organic material. ClO2 is also a true dissolved gas in solution and as such easily penetrates biofilms and slime layers achieving superior disinfection at their source. The chemistry creates the ability to achieve excellent antimicrobial control in low to heavily fouled environments, maintain consistent chlorine dioxide residuals at very low levels of treatment and can do this very cost effectively.

 

Chlorine dioxide is generally produced at the point of demand, as it tends to have a shelf life measured in hours. The mobile production equipment produced by Ramteq is capable of producing enough ClO2 to kill all of the bacteria in a pipeline providing water to a frac. ClO2 is very controllable, it is very simple to measure the residual level in the treated water and adjust the dosage to maintain a desired level.

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  Some common features users of chlorine dioxide enjoy

 

Common features of chlorine dioxide

  • Best performer commercially available for heavily fouled systems
  • Broad spectrum antimicrobial agent
  • Activity not pH dependant
  • Effective over a pH range of 4-10
  • Does not form disinfection byproducts (THM, HAA, TCP or TCA)
  • Does not react with alcohols or ammonia
  • Micro-Organisms cannot build resistance to chlorine dioxide
  • Easy to maintain consistent residuals
  • Has a low corrosion influence on system metallurgies
  • Quickly and easily oxidizes all odor producing compounds
  • Does not react with most organic materials

 

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Applications of Chlorine Dioxide

 As a highly effective and economical disinfection agent, chlorine dioxide is used in many applications. The numerous positive qualities of ClO2 listed above allow it to have almost endless application potential. Chlorine Dioxide can be utilized as a stand alone disinfectant or easily integrated into a broader fluid treatment system. An additional benefit of ClO2 is it being recognized by the EPA as a green biocide when used at specified levels.

 

Chlorine Dioxide is used in but not limited to the following applications

  • Food processing
  • Wine production
  • Drinking and potable water production
  • Recirculated water systems
  • Iron and Manganese oxidation and color removal
  • Pulp bleaching
  • Odor control – mercaptain, hydrogen sulfide oxidation
  • Odor control- Bio composting
  • Odor control- Rendering
  • Cooling tower- low corrosion biological control
  • Silmacide- many applications
  • Ethanol production- cooling towers, fermentation
  • Phenol, cyanide oxidation
  • Well casing & formation disinfectant – all well types, potable remediation to oil field
  • Frac water pre-processing

 

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Generating Chlorine Dioxide

 The methods of generating ClO2 are numerous both from a chemistry perspective as well as the mechanics involved.

Of these different methods our choice for most applications is a Chlorine Free two-precursor system.   In our opinion this particular method has many beneficial features that set it above most other methods. Two of the primary benefits are; First the use of a  venturi-effect eductor to pull all chemicals under vacuum provides for a very safe environment for the operator, as the chemical is never under pressure during the operation of the equipment. The second clear benefit is the lack of sodium hypochlorite (bleach) in the process, as unreacted sodium hypochlorite can affect the level of chlorine and the pH of the fluid being treated.

 

 

 

Two Precursor Generation - Chlorine Free – Safety Features

All Feed Stock chemicals are vacuum educted and solenoid actuated. Without motive water flow, the chlorine dioxide precursors cannot be fed. No chemical metering pumps are used in this process. This prevents uncontrolled chlorine dioxide precursor feeding and assures the upmost dependability. The system simply needs pressurized water to operate.

This system produces a chlorine free chlorine dioxide product. Both chemical feed stocks, including sodium chlorite and hydrochloric acid are in the aqueous form. Chlorine Dioxide is produced by mixing these materials in a reaction chamber then diluting them into the motive water stream. Chlorine Dioxide in this case is typically 0.025-0.1% (250-1000 PPM) strength in water before being injected into the process. This level of ClO2 is well below saturation avoiding the risk of producing free chlorine dioxide gas within the process.

 

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